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Table of contents

Pregnant women should be educated about the signs and symptoms of anxiety and depression while health workers at antenatal clinics should be involved in both education and training programmes to facilitate detection and treatment of anxiety and depression in pregnancy. This study was a cross-sectional study in which the participants were seen only once.

The differences in age of the participants, gestational age and parity were not taken into consideration. These factors may in one way or the other have affected the results obtained in this study. Anxiety and depressive disorders are prevalent among pregnant women, with associated distress and adverse foetal outcomes.

It is difficult for patients and health workers to distinguish them amidst the signs and symptoms of pregnancy. Hence, all hands should be on deck to improve awareness and treatment by incorporating screening for anxiety and depression into routine antenatal care, especially in developing countries like Nigeria.

We acknowledge the support received from Dr Udegbunam Nkeiru and Dr Esther Okwor during data collection and Dr Odinka PC in the review of the initial draft and supply of articles that helped us in the literature review. The authors declare that they have no financial or personal relationship s that may have inappropriately affected their report of the findings of this research. About the Author s Ezeme M.

Level of awareness and treatment of anxiety and depression during pregnancy in southeast Nigeria.

S Afr J Psychiat. Better Health. Pregnancy- signs and symptoms of pregnancy [homepage on the Internet]. Early pregnancy signs and symptoms[homepage on the Internet]. Levels and effects of different forms of anxiety during pregnancy after a prior miscarriage. Psychological science on pregnancy: Stress processes, biopsychosocial models, and emerging research issues.

Ann Rev Psychol. Depression during pregnancy. Influence of prenatal maternal stress, maternal plasma cortisol and cortisol in the amniotic fluid on birth outcomes and child temperament at 3 months.

Mental health aspects of women's reproductive health : a global review of the literature

Poverty, violence and depression during pregnancy: A survey of mothers attending a public hospital in Brazil. Psychol Med ; 35 10 : — Prevalence of anxiety and depression during pregnancy in a private setting sample. Arch Womens Mental Health. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, Depression and other common mental disorders. Geneva: Global Health Estimates; BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. Depressive symptoms among pregnant women screened in obstetrics settings. J Womens Health.

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Epidemiology of major depressive disorder in elderly Nigerians in the Ibadan study of ageing: A community-based survey. Lancet ; — Why does mental health not get the attention it deserves? An application of the Shiffman and Smith framework. PLoS Med. Reliability and validity of instruments for assessing perinatal depression in African settings: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One. Persistence of maternal depressive symptoms throughout the early years of childhood. Postpartum depression help-seeking barriers and maternal treatment preferences: A qualitative systematic review. Disclosure of symptoms of postnatal depression, the perspectives of health professionals and women: A qualitative study. BMC Fam Pract. Strategies for improving perinatal depression treatment in North American outpatient obstetric settings. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol.

Qual Health Res. Patient perspectives on improving the depression referral processes in obstetrics settings: A qualitative study. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. Cohort study of depressed mood during pregnancy and after childbirth. Br Med J. Pan Afr Med J. Infants of depressed mothers show depressed behavior even with non-depressed adults.

Child Dev. Recurrence of depression during pregnancy: Psychosocial and personal functioning correlates. Depress Anxiety. Page M, Wilhelm MS. Postpartum daily stress, relationship quality, and depressive symptoms. Contemp Fam Ther. Depression during pregnancy and the postpartum period in adolescent and adult Portuguese mothers.


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Preterm birth: Causes consequences and prevention. Washington, DC: The Press; A review of risk scoring for preterm birth. Clin Perinatol.

Stress in pregnancy: Empirical evidence and theoretical issues to guide interdisciplinary research. The handbook of stress science biology, psychology, and health. New York: Springer Publishing Company, ; — Hobel C. Stress and preterm birth. Clin Obstet Gynecol. The timing of prenatal exposure to maternal cortisol and psychosocial stress is associated with human infant cognitive development. Prenatal maternal stress, HPA axis activity, and postnatal infant development. Int Cong Series. Prenatal maternal anxiety and early childhood temperament.

Depressive symptoms in a sample of women following perinatal loss. J Natl Med Assoc. Prevalence of antenatal depression and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Abeokuta North LGA, Nigeria. Depress Res Treat. Prevalence of anxiety, depression and associated factors among pregnant women of Hyderabad, Pakistan. Int J Soc Psychiatry. Frequency and associated factors for anxiety and depression in pregnant women: A hospital based cross-sectional study.

Aims: To study the psychological health of women undergoing assisted reproduction. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study conducted between March and April at a tertiary care in-vitro fertilization setup in India.

Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health

Overall life stress, covering all areas of life, was assessed using Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale. Cornell Medical Index was applied to evaluate overall physical and mental health. Results: Clinically, significant depression was identified in Conclusion: Being infertile has profound detrimental psychological impact on the life of women.

Women undergoing treatment had significant high levels of psychological stress, depression and anxiety along with a lowered quality of life. Contact Login. Advanced Search. Menning BE. The emotional needs of infertile couples. Fertil Steril ; Psychiatric morbidity in the infertile population: A reconceptualization.

The experiences of couples who have had infertility treatment in the United Kingdom: Results of a survey performed in Hum Reprod ; J Psychosom Res ; Geneva: WHO Press Hamilton M. The assessment of anxiety states by rating. Br J Med Psychol ; Agra: National Psychological Corporation; A rating scale for depression.

J Neurol ; Indian J Psychiatry ; The fertility quality of life FertiQoL tool: Development and general psychometric properties.